What is a Primary Survey

The Primary Survey is the initial patient assessment, intended to rapidly and systematically identify and treat any immediately life-threatening problems. It follows the ABC format familiar from other courses, but extends this into more detail. Assessment and treatment proceed simultaneously – as a problem is identified,appropriate action should be taken before moving on ...

What is a Mental Health

Concepts of mental health include subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one’s intellectual and emotional potential. It has also been defined as a state of well-being whereby individuals recognize their abilities, are able to cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, ...

23 December 2009

Low Self-Esteem

Low self-esteem is a mental disorder that may occur to someone, afraid to meet with other people, feeling useless. Early symptoms alone are visible. Following simple notion of low self-esteem
Low self-esteem is a personal assessment of the results achieved by analyzing the extent to fulfill the ideal behavior of self (Stuart and Sundeen, 1998: 227). According to Townsend (1998:189) low self-esteem is a self-evaluation of sense of self or negative self either directly or indirectly. The same opinion by Carpenito, LJ (1998:352) that 'low self-esteem' is a condition in which individuals experience negative self-evaluation of self or self. A conclusion, 'low self-esteem' is a negative sense of self, loss of confidence and failed to achieve the goals expressed directly or indirectly, decreased self-esteem can be situational or chronic or chronic.
Signs and symptoms
According to Carpenito, LJ (1998: 352); Keliat, BA (1994:20); behavior associated with low self-esteem include:
Subjective Data:
  • Criticize yourself or others
  • The feeling itself is very important that exaggerated
  • Feelings of inadequacy
  • Guilt
  • Negative attitude to yourself
  • Pessimistic attitude to life
  • Physical pains
  • A polarized view of life
  • Rejecting self -
  • Reduction self / self mocking
  • Feelings of anxiety and fear
  • Rationalize the rejection / away from the positive feedback
  • Revealing personal failure
  • Inability to set goals
Objective data:
  • Productivity decreases
  • Self-destructive behavior on their own
  • Destructive behavior on others
  • Substance abuse
  • Withdraw from social relationships
  • Facial expressions of shame and guilt
  • Showed signs of depression (difficulty sleeping and eating difficult)
  • Seems irritable / easily angered
Low self-esteem is often caused because of the individual coping ineffective due to lack of positive feedback, lack of support systems, the decline of ego development, the repetition of negative feedback, dysfunctional family system and immobilized in the early developmental stages (Townsend, MC, 1998: 366). According to Carpenito, LJ (1998: 82) coping ineffective individual is a state where an individual experiencing or at risk of an inability to handle internal or environmental stressor with due adequate resources (physical, psychological, behavioral or cognitive). Meanwhile, according to Townsend, MC (1998: 312) coping individual is not effective adaptive behavior disorder and a problem-solving ability in fulfilling the role of guidance and life.
Therapy generalist

Principle of action:

  • Identify the capabilities and the positive aspects that are still owned by the client.
  • Help clients assess the capabilities that can be used
  • Help clients choose / set the ability to be trained
  • Practice the ability of the selected client
  • Give proper credit to the success of clients
  • Help develop implementation schedule for the trainee's ability
  • Evaluate the patient's ability to schedule daily activities
  • Practice the ability of both
  • Motivation clients include both capabilities into the daily schedule
READ MORE - Low Self-Esteem

11 December 2009

Post-Traumatic Stress

post-traumatichave you ever experienced the fear when considering an event you've ever experienced? Or, you inadvertently involved situations that remind you of things that you fear? This is about someone who is experiencing stress disorder about the events that never happened.
Disorders post-traumatic stress (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)) is characterized by the repetition of the traumatic memory of a moment that shook the soul. Experienced or seen traumatic event that threatens death or serious injury can effect a person for a long time. Very scared, helpless, or a frightening experience for traumatic events can haunt a person. Something that can cause post-traumatic stress includes the following:
• Related to the war
• Experienced or seen physical violence or sex
• Affected by disasters, both natural (e.g., hurricanes) or man-made (e.g., great car accidents).
Sometimes symptoms begin until many months or even years after the traumatic event occurred. If the disorder of post-traumatic had been happen for 3 months or more, it is considered chronic. Post-traumatic disorder affects at least 8% of people sometimes throughout their lives, including childhood. Many people experience traumatic events, such as war veterans and victims of rape or other violent activities, experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder.
In disorders post-traumatic stress, nightmares are common. Sometimes life event as if it happened again (flashbacks). Great disruption often occurs when people are confronted with events or circumstances that remind them of the trauma of origin. For example, hue and cry at time of the traumatic moment occurred. People constantly avoiding things that remind of the trauma. They could also try to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations about the traumatic event and to avoid activities, circumstances, or people who can remind. Avoidance may also include loss of memory (amnesia) for certain aspects of the traumatic accident. People suffering from depression on emotional reactions and symptoms that appear to increase (such as trouble sleeping, be alert to the danger mark at risk, or be easily startled). Symptoms of depression are common, and people show little interest in previously enjoyable activities. Feelings of guilt are also common. For example, they may feel guilty that when they survive when others did not. Requires treatment psychotherapy (including contact therapy) and drug therapy. Because the great anxiety often associated with memories that shake the soul, supportive psychotherapy plays a very important task in the treatment. Openly therapist empathy and sympathy in identifying psychological pain. Therapist response reassuring people that they are real but they encourage them to face the memories (as a form of therapy contacts). They are also taught how to control, which helps modulate and integrate into the tortured memories of their personality. Antidepressants seem to provide some benefits. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidize inhibitors (MAOIs) really helped.
Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder cannot be lost but can reduce over time evens without treatment. However, some people become permanent disability with such disorders. Defects in question here is psychologically flawed
READ MORE - Post-Traumatic Stress

03 December 2009

Cancer Tips

cancer simple treatmentCancer is a disease dreaded by us and can affect anyone. In terms of doing cancer prevention, there are little things you can do. If you believe in one thing, that everything can change just by doing the little things, this is only a few tips for you.

  • Don’t smoke
Smoking, whatever it may increase the risk for cancer. By not smoking or using other tobacco products is an important step to prevent the cancer disease.
Physically active & maintain a healthy weight
Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly, helps prevent cancer. People who are overweight or obesity can increase the risk of colon cancer, esophagus and stomach. Try to keep physical activity for 30 minutes every day.
  • Avoid fast food
While eating a variety of foods, does not guarantee you to not get cancer, but these healthy habits can reduce risk. Many of the chemicals contained in fast-food, such as preservatives and other.
  • Protect your skin from the sun
Skin cancer, including cancers that occur at the same time many types of cancer the most preventable. Although exposed to X-ray exposure or exposed to certain chemicals is one cause, but above all is exposure to sunlight. So that the most important prevention is to protect the skin from the sun, especially at 9 am - 4 pm, when activities should be in the sun, try to better protect the skin was closed by using clothing or use sunscreen.
  • Immunization
There are several types of specific cancers associated with viral infections that can be prevented through immunization. Such as hepatitis B infection may increase the risk of liver cancer or HPV infection that can increase the risk of cancer cervix. For more details regarding these immunizations can consult with your doctor.
  • Examination
Self-examination may not be able to prevent cancer, but can find out early if there is cancer so that treatment can be done from the beginning. The recommended tests include skin, mouth, colon & rectum. For men plus prostate & testicular exams, while for women breast & cervix. Notice if there is a change in the body, either in the form of a lump or rash on the skin, as this can help to detect early symptoms & contact your doctor immediately.
READ MORE - Cancer Tips


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