What is a Primary Survey

The Primary Survey is the initial patient assessment, intended to rapidly and systematically identify and treat any immediately life-threatening problems. It follows the ABC format familiar from other courses, but extends this into more detail. Assessment and treatment proceed simultaneously – as a problem is identified,appropriate action should be taken before moving on ...

What is a Mental Health

Concepts of mental health include subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence and recognition of the ability to realize one’s intellectual and emotional potential. It has also been defined as a state of well-being whereby individuals recognize their abilities, are able to cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively and fruitfully, ...

29 January 2010

Examination of Asthma

You may have read about the articles related to emergency airway in this blog. You want better know about it, the article below is about asthma. Of course you already know about this disease. Please reads....
Asthma is also called reactive airway disease (RAD) is a disease of the airway obstruction is characterized by reversible bronchospasme, inflammation and increased airway reaction to various stimuli

Asthma is divided into:
  • Allergic asthma; caused by allergies such as pollen, animal, angry, food, and mushrooms.
  • Asthma idiopathic or non-allergic; such as colds, respiratory infections, exercise, emotions, and environmental pollutants can cause an attack, pharmacological agents: agent’s aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs, hair dyes, beta-adrenergic antagonists, and agent’s sulfite.
  • Asthma combined; a form of asthma is the most common. It is characterized by allergic asthma and idiopathic nonalergic.
  • Levels of asthma
  1. Level I, clinically normal, no abnormalities of physical examination and lung function. But the patients experienced problems when their bodies are experiencing physical or emotional weakness
  2. Level II. Patients without complaints and abnormalities on physical examination. Showed lung function and airway obstruction often found after recovering from asthma
  3. Level III. In patients with no complaints but the physical examination and pulmonary function abnormalities that indicate airway obstruction, usually patients who had recovered from asthma but did not seek treatment on a regular basis
  4. Level IV. Patients with shortness of breath, the breath sounds on physical examination and airway obstruction
  5. Level V. Patients with status asthmatics where circumstances severe asthma and needed medical help emergency.
  • Signs and Symptoms of Asthma
  1. Wheezing (sound like squeaks during breathing)
  2. Dispend with expiratory time; use of accessory respiratory muscles extra nose, pulling his chest, and Strider.
  3. Dry cough (not productive) because of thick secretions and airway lumen.
  4. Tachipnoe, ortopnea
  5. Restless
  6. Diaphoreses
  7. Abdominal pain due to involvement of the abdominal muscles on respiratory
  8. Fatigue
  9. Not tolerant of activities, eating, playing, walking and even talking.
  10. Anxiety, labile, and changes in level of consciousness
  11. Increasing Anteroposterior diameter (barrel chest)
  12. Sudden attack or gradual

  • Causes of Asthma:
  • Intrinsic Factor
  1. Infection: the influenza virus, pneumonia.
  2. Physical: cold weather, changes in temperature, chemical irritants, air pollution (CO, smoke and perfume)
  3. Emotional: fear, anxiety, and tension
  4. Excessive activity
  • Extrinsic factor
  1. Antigen and antibody reaction, due to inhalation allergen (dust, pollen, dust, animal fur).

  • Examination of Asthma

  1. X-ray; during an acute episode of chest x-ray may show hyperinflation diaphragm.
  2. Examination of lung function, can be found decreased tidal volume, vital capacity, increased eosinophils in the blood or sputum
  3. Examination allergies; test (+) that causes skin blisters and a big reaction that can identify the specific allergen.
  4. Pulse Oximetry; found in the peripheral O2 saturation decreased (Cyanosis)
  5. Blood gas analysis; indicates hypoxia during the acute attack, there was initially hipokapnea and respiratory alkalosis, low Pco2.

  • Help
  • Acute attacks with a nasal or face mask oxygen.
  • Parenteral fluid therapy
  • Appropriate medication therapy program: Agonists beta-adrenergic receptors, the best treatment for the treatment of asthma and prevent asthma attacks may be triggered by exercise. Bronkodilatator; stimulate airway dilation by beta-adrenergic receptors. (Terbutalin, Salbutamol, Fenetotol, Theophylline). Corticosteroid; inflames blocking response and very effective in reducing asthma symptoms. If used in the long run, will lead to a gradual reduction in the trend of asthma attacks by reducing airway sensitivity to some stimuli. Ant cholinergic drugs work blocking smooth muscle contraction and the formation of excessive mucus in bronchus acetylcholine.
  • Nebulizer therapy in severe acute attacks of asthma, drug can be given a form adrenergic agents epinephrine, albuterol, metaproterenol, isopoterenol and terbutalin.
Crompton. G. (1980) "Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Disease". Blacwell Scientific Publication.
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16 January 2010

Big Ass, Big Thighs!!

big is beautiful
For women, having a large body might make you less confident. However, don't be discouraged! Because according a study in the UK, hips, buttocks and thighs were big, useful for heart health. As reported by the BBC, according to team researchers from the British, the fat in the hips contain anti-inflammatory agents (anti-inflammatory natural) that can stop the blockage of arteries. While fat on the butt better than the piles of fat around the waist.
"Fat around the hips and thighs good for someone. But if in the abdomen, to be a bad thing. The more fat around the thighs, the better, as long as your abdomen stays slim, "explained lead researcher Dr. Konstantinos Manolopoulos from Oxford University. The study, written in the International Journal of Obesity reveals that having too little fat in the hips can cause serious metabolic problems such as Cushing's syndrome. This syndrome occurs due to the adrenal glands produce excessive corticosteroid.
Other evidence shows that fat around the thighs and ass is more difficult to lose than fat around the waist. This is actually beneficial, because the more fat burning, the more cytokines are also missing. These cytokines are usually associated with cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and diabetes. Not only that, the slower fat-burning process on hips, then the hormone production becomes more adinopektin. Adinopektin hormones can protect arteries and improve blood sugar control and better fat-burning process. Whereas if the carry excess fat around the abdomen (such as an apple body shape) can increase the risk of diabetes and heart disease.
Fotini Rozakeas from British Heart Foundation, this research reveals may help better understand how of the best distribution of body fat in order to prevent someone from heart disease or diseases related to blood circulation. So, avoid the accumulation of fat in the abdomen with the right diet and is recommended by health experts is the perfect solution!
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12 January 2010

Time to cut down on sleeping pills

insomnia solution

The health story that had everyone's attention at the beginning of the year was the threat of swine flu. We all watched as the threat level inched up to pandemic. Yet, although millions of people have caught this flu, only a few tens of thousand have died. But there is still interesting news about the pattern of deaths. The people most likely to die are young and, almost without exception, they are obese. Frankly, if you carry excess weight, this flu is a killer, which raises a more general question for you to chew on. No matter what you might choose to believe, the majority of people are overweight because of their lifestyles. They eat too much and exercise too little. So, the US is a country where individual liberty is the most important quality of life. It's up to every one of us to take personal responsibility for what we do and the consequences of those actions. So what personal responsibility should we take for our own health? Further, if we are against big government, should people who do not take care of their health just be allowed to die if they do not have enough money to pay for health insurance?

The latest statistics show that, as a nation, we spend about 16% of the gross domestic product on health care. This includes the cost of medications and is double the average in countries around the world. But we are not a healthy nation. Counting the number of prescriptions fulfilled through real world pharmacies, we consume more sleeping pills and antidepressants per head of population than any other nation. That's before we start guessing how many drugs are purchased on the internet. We are seriously overmedicated. The results are easy to see. Many drugs cause insomnia as an unintended side effect. So we all walk around like zombies and beg our doctors for relief. So now comes the difficult decision. Do you reduce the dosages of the drugs you are taking, or add ambien to the mixture to offset the side effects? The rational answer is to do without the first drug altogether. If it is interfering with your sleep and making you feel worse, you should stop taking it. Adding a second drug to balance out the side effects of the first is more expensive and potentially going to make you dependent on one or both drugs.

When there is very clear scientific evidence showing meditation and relaxation techniques as a completely effective treatment for insomnia, there should never be a need to take sleeping pills. People should go through the simple training program and emerge better able to control their sleep patterns. As a result, their general health will improve. But, as with everything, there are problems. The marketers have managed to convince the majority of us that drugs are the best form of treatment. We are taught to dismiss psychology as a waste of time. Worse, private health insurance often will not pay for the training sessions. At a time of recession, this leaves many with no choice. There is only enough to buy ambien and not enough to pay for training in something we do not trust.

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Rabbits today, men tomorrow


There's a standard joke (except among the farmers of produce) that, among all animals, the rabbits are the most enthusiastic of lovers and, with no natural predators to keep down their numbers, they are likely to take over the world (and eat all the produce) through their breeding power. It is therefore somewhat ironic to read of research work carried out in the Institute of Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest University in New Carolina. Researchers have been practising their techniques to rebuild the muscle walls in the penis of rabbits. Instead of leaving the males to suffer from erectile dysfunction, surgeons have been trying to keep up their breeding reputation. So let's bring this back to Earth. With today's technology, if a human male has a serious accident, goes through surgery, say to remove a prostate cancer, or catches the wrong disease, and the penis is damaged, it cannot be repaired. The penis is actually a complicated piece of kit involving sponge-like tissue designed to soak up blood and a complicated system of arteries and veins to carry blood into and out of the penis. There are no quick fixes.

Now, thanks to the rabbit, there's hope for men with serious damage to their penis. The research is concentrating on growing new tissue in the laboratory. This starts with the collection of endothelial cells and cells from the smooth muscle walls of the penis. These cells are then used to coat a scaffold and allowed to grow. It takes several months but, when complete, the scaffold holds blood vessels and muscles matching those in the penis of the donor. Then it's just a matter of surgery to implant the scaffold to replace the damaged arteries. Once the surgery is complete and the rabbits recover, they have been able to achieve an erection and penetration 85% of the time. To go from complete impotence to such high levels of success is encouraging for men.

The technology for growing implants in the laboratory is increasingly common for human transplant purposes. Indeed, the same team has been growing bladders for implantation into humans for the last year or so. Applying the same technology to erectile dysfunction offers a remarkable opportunity. No matter how good a drug such as cialis, it cannot rebuild damaged muscles or replace lost nerve endings. Seeding the cell culture on the scaffold with the cells taken directly from the penis of the man awaiting surgery gives the maximum compatibility between the finished artificial organ and the donor. There is little likelihood of rejection. If the same success rate of 85% was experienced by men following surgery, this would be a remarkable recovery of a lost function. As it stands, many men postpone surgery for the removal of growths in the prostate because they fear the common consequences of impotence. Should this technique be proven, it would encourage men to have life-saving surgery earlier. Until the FDA formally approves the process, this will remain a distant prospect. But there is hope for men of all ages who suffer injuries. If the team gets a license, such men may be able to enjoy a sex life again. Until then, the most they can expect is that they buy cialis and it works some of the time to produce an erection often less than complete hard.

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04 January 2010

World Health Crimes

malpractiseIn a health world, comfort and safety for patients is a priority. Health workers are required to provide good service to their patients. Not just for profit with expensive fees charged, and we know that treatment is not cheap. There is a principle that 'health is expensive'. Yes, it's true. But how do we as consumers or patients avoid bad practice commonly known as malpractice? What is clear, the patient must be active. This is also to get of the rights they have when facing a doctor. What can a patient? The advice of dr. Bahar Azwar, Sp.B.Onk. :
  • Do not accept it raw what the doctor said. If something you do not understand, immediately ask. By asking, at least you'll know why doctor tell about your disease.
  • Do not assume your doctor knows all things. If the doctor looked in doubt as to diagnose your illness, immediately ask him!
  • You try to understand the legal and ethical issues governing the rights and obligations of patients and physicians. Materials that you can get from anywhere, like books, magazines, television, and others.
  • Find out all about doctors and treatments offered. Thus, you will not be harmed by a doctor services. Or at least, if they feel disadvantaged, you can demand better service.
  • Do not be afraid to ask for a second opinion, whether it's doctor or traditional healer. If in doubt, switch doctors also allowed as long as you know what you are doing.
Behind the guarantee of medical services offered, there are also bad people who want to achieve maximum profit. By way of creating a virus or disease, then they sell the vaccine at a great price. With the health needs of all people, such activities can provide a significant advantage. We were not able to avoid it. Only for money they do everything, including killing each other, but is not there another way to not create a plague to gain? What do you think about this?
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